reading, writing, spelling - make a difference with research-based word study


Classroom Implementation of the Multi-linguistic Model for Literacy Instruction (ASHA, 2008) This three-year project examined the effects of the SPELL & SPELL-Links prescriptive and multi-linguistic word study model, finding that nonsense word decoding improved in grades 3 through 5, real word decoding improved in grade 5, and accuracy in writing samples increased both within and across grade levels. 


Criterion Validity of the Spelling Performance Evaluation for Language and Literacy - SPELL (ASHA, 2006) The criterion validity of SPELL spelling assessment software is established by its significant correlation with the Test of Written Spelling - 4 and the Woodcock Diagnostic Reading Battery.​


Tailored Reading-Spelling Instruction (ASHA, 2005) This study documents the benefits of using the SPELL assessment to tailor word study instruction to a student's specific needs. Orthographic instructional goals for 5th grade students were based on each student's spelling performance, as indicated by SPELL and word study activities were taken from SPELL-Links to Reading & Writing.


​​Outcomes Report: SPELL-Links to Reading & Writing (Language and Literacy Learning in Schools, 2004) Third and fourth grade students who received nine weeks of SPELL-Links to Reading & Writing instructional methods demonstrated large, statistically significant gains in spelling skills in comparison to children who received traditional spelling instruction.


​​Outcomes Report: SPELL & SPELL-Links to Reading & Writing (CDQ, 2004) A fourth grade student shows significant gains in spelling and decoding skills after receiving the SPELL assessment and nine weeks of word study intervention using the instructional methods of the SPELL-Links to Reading & Writing word study curriculum.



SPELL-Links Outcome Data: The Impact of Transcription Writing Interventions for First-Grade Students (Reading & Writing Quarterly, 2017)​ In this study conducted by the Florida Center on Reading Research (FCRR), low-performing 1st grade students who received SPELL-Links intervention in small groups of 4 students, 25 min a day, 4 days a week for 8 weeks outperformed the control group with moderate effect sizes across different measures of spelling and curriculum-based writing: experimental spelling task, Woodcock-Johnson spelling, and correct word sequences (CWS).


Why Teach Spelling? (Center on Instruction, 2012) This article summarizes the research, explaining why proper spelling instruction is crucial for developing reading and writing skills and includes a checklist of criteria that a thorough and effective spelling curriculum should meet; SPELL & SPELL-Links to Reading & Writing meet all these criteria.


Teaching Literacy Using a Multiple-Linguistic Word-Study Spelling Approach: A Systematic Review (EBP Briefs, 2009) Dr. Julie Wolter, Associate Professor and member of the Child Language Research Group at Utah State University, presents a systematic review of the peer-reviewed quantitative research related to language and literacy outcomes in school-age children using a multiple-linguistic spelling instructional approach. 


Why Spelling is Important and How to Teach it Effectively (Encyclopedia of Language and Literacy Development, 2008) Dr. Virginia Berninger, Professor of Educational Psychology at the University of Washington, highlights the relationship between spelling, reading, and writing; summarizes key research; describes current best practices for spelling instruction; and cites SPELL-Links to Reading & Writing as an evidence-based instructional tool for explicit spelling instruction.


​​Spelling: Best Ideas = Best Practices (NCTE, 2003) Dr. Shane Templeton, Foundation Professor of Literacy Studies at the University of Nevada, endorses SPELL-2 as a well-constructed assessment supported by solid research.


​​Linking Characteristics Discovered in Spelling Assessment to Intervention Goals and Methods (LDQ, 2010) This case study compares curricula and illustrates the many benefits of SPELL & SPELL-Links over a traditional word study approach as exemplified by Saxon Phonics.


The Spelling Sensitivity Score: Representing Increases in Accuracy and Complexity (ASHA, 2009) The Spelling Sensitivity Score (SSS), based on the SPELL & SPELL-Links multiple-linguistic approach, represents what children's spellings reveal about their word study knowledge and captures developmental changes in children's literacy performance. Data based on 4,229 spellings indicate that weighted SSS scores distinguished between performance among students in grades 1 through 6.

Get the research.

​​Get abstracts of new word study research when you connect with educators and researchers across multiple disciplines via SPELLTalk, the FREE online professional learning community dedicated to improving literacy though word study.                                                    

proven approach.

​​SPELL & SPELL-Links are based on the most current and relevant research of best practices for teaching spelling and reading conducted by the leading experts in the science of word study.                                                

proven effective.

​SPELL & SPELL-Links have been proven effective in a variety of settings, across grade levels, and across different student populations.                                                         

SPELL & SPELL-LINKS: RESEARCH-BASED AND PROVEN TO GET RESULTS